Friday, September 16, 2011

Project/Self Study On BMIC Corridor- Habitat TISS

Planning Concentration -Project cum Self Study on BMIC corridor
Jogging down all the ideas of Planning Concentration -Project cum Self Study on BMIC corridor in this blog.

Jul 19, 2011

Common Theme : To look at Institution of BMICLPA involved in implementing this project. Also the roles of other institutions such as BDA, BMRDA etc, the overlap in jurisdiction, conflict areas, other issues in the functioning of these institutions. Also to research in the positions of Authority is occupied by same Officials serving in different departments and what effect this has on decision making, overlap in jurisdiction in district of Ramanagara, Mandya and Mysore districts.

Also do a comparative analysis of Old and New Master Plan and few preliminary analysis

Theme 1:

Land Acquisition , R and R ....: Looking at distribution of the costs and benefits of this corridor developments among existing farmers, residents and private players etc . Study the social groups that will be made vulnerable by these transformations (like small farmers, landless agricultural workers). Looking at structure of these social groups ( whether they are small farmers, caste issues, their links to political leader to influence decision making etc)

1) how land has been acquired and the costs and benefits that have resulted, including resistance to acquisition and strategies of different groups including political strategies and coalitions formed?

2) To verify whether there is an official R&R policy, what it says and whether people have been rehabilitated and compensated as per this policy, analyzing the “Social justice” ( see how it is defined) of this?

Data sources for this- one is certainly field work and not sure of others

Theme 2: Water

Project required NICE to use approximately 150 MLD of water. This would disrupt the water supply of the city. Also, BMIC was supposed to get 85 MLD of waste water for various purpose. This would affect farmers severely who use this water for irrigation of their land. Looking at HC cases involving BWSSB related to BMIC

1) how decisions on water distribution and privatization are taken, by whom and on what basis, and estimating what are consequences?

2) Current and future possible sources of water (for eg is ground water used in majority), where they come from, tariff paid, internal differences in access within BMICLPA corridor (eg btw villages and township and between BMICLPA and other peripheral areas and/or core city.

3) Areas and points of conflict over water allocation to BMIC as studied through legal route (eg high court cases), if this is with regard to individual complaints or dispute btw sectors (eg agriculture vs industry or rural vs urban). or is it some other question

The water supply, if possible, should also not only cover but also not only cover the NICE Townships but also parts of BMIC LPA in the Bangalore - Bidadi - Ramanagaram - Channapatna belt i.e. the APZ - 1 mentioned in the Structure Plan of Bangalore Metropolitan Region. You may have to go through the Structure Plan which now has been revised.

data sources -BWSSB And need to check how I can access this data sources and there is a time constraint of 3-4 months

Combine Theme 1 and 2 especially in relation with the environment protection report that is supposed to have been prepared for the clearance of BMIC project.

Also I want to use GIS maps to show this output of this project in Interesting Maps


Sat, Jul 30, 2011

I did some preliminary research and found this

Rural Department side - INSTITUTIONS involved in Water Sector

Water Resources Department - irrigation and drainage + ground water
But domestic and drinking water issues ( also in rural) is Public health Engineering dept
Agricultural Dept and Water shed department- Water applications, sprinklers to farmers , but in some states PR and RD manages this
Industries Dept is concerned with utilisation an available of water
Large irrigation projects under a command area Development dept - looks at multi-disciplinary and multisectoral development of irrigation command areas.
Small water bodies an smaller land water related construction and maintainance works ( + han pumps for drinking water an domestic water use) falls under the ambit of PRI and thus rural developmet department.
Environment Dept- concerned with water quality and sufficient minimum flows in streams and rivers to ensure that impurities do net get concentrated in certian places.
Due to urban-rural linkages an the fact that at many places water from rural areas is transported to urban areas, UDD has to co-ordinate regarding rural water use.
Medical and health Dept - water borne diseases with saniaion and cleanliness..

I will try to link this info with Water Supply/ Distribution

Tue, Aug 9, 2011

Topic of Project: BMIC- Bangalore Mysore Infrastructure Corridor: A Critical look at Institutional Dynamics and Basic Service delivery with a Special case of Water Supply and Distribution


The Corridor development , A new kind of Urbanisation.
Why is Corridor development promoted? Studying the larger phenomenon of infrastructructure driven urbanization, such as urban growth corridors - why is there an emphasis on such forms of development?
What is driving this sort of development? what are the elements of such development /growth corridors? who develops?
Who are the Stakeholders involved. ( Doing a Stakeholder Analysis)
Creation of World Class cities on this Corridor ( 6 Township + Knowledge center are planned) these need high class infrastructure, basic services delivery. These will be connected Globally.
Many new Industries have come in in this corridor. Leads to more Urbanisation.
Then looking at service delivery of basic services to these centers and the effect it has on the villages in this corridor Ex- Water Supply and Distribution . Is this going to be sustainable? Is it going to be piped water supply? 24* 7 supply? How are pipes going to be laid? Will it lead to acquiring new lands apart from planned corridor? What about the 8 Lakes in BMR region? Can BWSSB use these to supply water. But sustainability of these sources is a question since these lakes are dried off? What are the cost implications of Supplying Kaveri Water to this corridor.

Will these township create pockets of high class vs low class with Big jumps, leaps in service delivery.
Now is there is huge shortage of supply of water in BMR will few sections be left out of this process? How and Why?
Then BWSSB can plan accordingly and bring Policy Intervention for better equity and Social Justice.
is Water for farming going to be diverted to World Class Towns? Then who is going to supply food if farm land are urbanised?

Institutional Dynamics

BMICLPA is the authority. Jurisdiction probs, overlap b/w BBMP, BDA, BMRDA , then 4 districts
BWSSB is giving water in BMR Region. This has two sides Eastern and Western sides. Eastern has few Water projs sanctioned
Then cuts across 4 districts.

What forms of new institutional arrangements are required? what are the emerging problems/contestations you may forsee with this kind of urbanization in terms of economic development, social inclusiveness, urban sprawl, strain on infrastructure, displacement of farmers, problems with land acquisition, etc

Rural Department side - INSTITUTIONS involved in Water Sector

What is the role of DC in co-ordination at Taluk level??
Looking at future projections of population, new infrastructure- water pipes, housing , swerage etc
Projection of Spatial growth of new towns, industries and overall urbanisation
Does this have an effect on Bangalore??

Also looking at new growth of Business in BMIC and opportunities lost to NH4 ( Min of Road and Transport)

What does by-passing mean? Is it to move away from conjested urbanised place? Does it now create new urban centers?

Outcomes : Policy Intervention

Map spatial distribution of water.
What new Infra for Water distribution are needed?
Stakeholder analysis maps
water provision instituitional mapping,
mapping areas of possible water conflicts in BMIC
Maps of future growth potential areas/corridors ( May be)

Policy Analysis topics

* Study existing Policy of BWSSB In Bangalore
* Water distribution system in Bangalore
* Study the New Bangalore Master Plan and Structure Plan 2013
* Study the Old Master Plan of BMIC 1996.
* Compare Old Master Plan vs New master Plan of BMIC

Thu, Sep 15, 2011

Concept Note of Self Study
Bangalore–Mysore Infrastructure Corridor (BMIC) intends to redirect development away from Bangalore in order to alleviate urban density in the interior and expand the overall space of Greater Bangalore to include new and old townships, small cities, village clusters and agricultural land.

Argument 1:
“economic geography” Allowing it to expand geographically- > more Urbanisation.
Therefore, new townships, corporate center, industrial center, farming/marketing center, ecotourism center or heritage center adjacent to rural setting, agriculture lands.
Also these townships will Lead to Leap Frog urban centers growth.
Vast contradictions. Rural Vs Urban.
Agriculture vs Industries. ( For water )
(Note : Mind you the land needed for this corridor is acquired and those villages which are just next to this corridor still exists.)

Argument 2 :
But why do these farmers sell their land?

Rural economy leaves the farmers few options but to sell their land at depressed prices to the government.
Difficulty proving ownership (especially women and the poor)
Land tenure relations in reflect deeply historical, localized, multilayered and intergenerational sets of informal agreements that have made it possible for laborers, village denizens to live and prosper
landowners vs non-owners. Conflicts in villages

Linkages with Institutions – new patterns of urbanization along corridors increased Role of new parastatal agencies such as KIADB, BWSSB, BMICLPA

What happens in Service Provisions. Example : Water- BWSSB ( In BMR region ) and KUWSDB( outside BMR region) will provide water to new towns , industries etc and farmers will lose livelihood.
(Looking at case study Basic Service Provision - water . Water is just a lense to look at spatial inequality created by this corridor)

Argument here is that :
Since BWSSB is overburdened to provide water in BMR itself , it is difficult for BWSSB to provide water to LPA. The main argument here is that, since there is limited water, this water will be given to townships and industries and in turn ignoring the Agriculture ( farmers ).
Should we in 1st place allow the Agriculture to die down??

Now if these industries pollute near by water bodies, ground water etc, this leads to farmers loosing their livelihood since they depend on these water bodies for livelihood. What effects this has on

I) farmers livelihood

ii) What are the differential impacts in a village, since not all will be impacted equally. The rich and well off villagers , hierarchy of caste , those who have access to power and can withstand these shocks ( Have Coping Strategies ) will be impacted less. ( Equity Dimension)

iii) Others who are most impacted, will migrate to urban centers in search of new livelihood opportunities.( Equity Dimension)

iv) This leads to break down of social- structures and loss of natural resources. ( Sustainable Livelihood Framework - Sustainable Dimension)

A central challenge to this type of corridor urbanization is the absence of regional governance structures that can regulate their growth, leading to “institutional fragmentation,” “continued spatial segregation of the villagers ,” “environmental challenges leading to destruction of water bodies” .

To understand this can I do a mapping of One entire village??

Argument 3 :

Then these rural people whose land is acquired in this corridor migrate to neighbouring
i ) villages ii) towns iii) cities.
Rationale: Rural urban migration is argued to both enhance economic growth and reduce rural-urban inequality, enabling cities to take advantage of scale economies, and people to abandon poor rural villages.
But the argument is that - Do these poor rural villages really benefit from this corridor? Studies have shown that they migrate the periperies, slums etc which are even more worse off. Leads to urban poverty. Growth of core and peripheral regions and Increasing spatial inequality.

(Again Looking at case study Basic Service Provision - water . Water is just a lense to look at spatial inequality created by this corridor.

1.Drinking Water requirement in the LPA
2.Population expected in LPA

3.Maximum water affordable to Bangalore

4.Integration of K.U.W.S & D.B and BWS & SB drinking water policies in the LPA so that there is no deficiency / overlap.

Step 1, 2, 4- KUWSDB and BWSSB have a policy on drinking water in BMICLPA. ( Assumption: I am Hopeful to get access to these Documents )
K.U.W.S & D.B policy on drinking water (covering the villages and urban centres not catered by BWS&SB).
B.W.S & S.B policy on drinking water in the Western and Eastern sectors of BMR

I think I will need to look at BWSSB estimation in BMR region and other sources of estimating Drinking Water Requirement for expected population.

Then I will have to cross check these estimated with Field Visits to villages and get the picture of villagers ( Village Sampling has to be done so that this data is represented in best way )

In step 3- Linkages of this data with Institution Mechanism.
Usage of Wagle Sir's Framework
My doubt - Should research provide a Prescription to Integration of KUWSDB and BWSSB so that there is no overlap?
Looking at overall Arguments from this Institution Mechanism?

Argument 4:

1.Possibility of drawing water from other sources
2.Linking of lakes / tanks in policy of water supply in LPA.

Now based on the above research, looking at other sources of water.
Argument : Since there are already existing sources of water in LPA, Policy of Water Supply should integrate all the sources of water in holistic manner to ensure Sustainable and Equitable
What are the parameters to measure this Sustainability ?


Thanks & Regards

Atul Kulkarni

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