Looking at overall New Urbanisation
Rural-urban transformations are best facilitated when policy makers recognize the economic interdependence among settlements. Within a country’s hierarchy of cities, towns, and villages, each specializes in a different function and has
strong interrelationships with others
The rationale for this is that, the State level Government should drive the policy for this type of urbanisation and Centre play the role of giving overall direction. There is no role of ULB
Prioritizing and sequencing of policies can help governments facilitate inclusive urbanization even in the early stages of development. For less urbanised areas- build density and reduce economic distance with spatially connective infrastructure. More more Urbnisized areas- build density, overcome distance, and address the economic and social divisions
Policy challenges become more complex with urbanization. Cities and towns provide ﬁ rms and families the beneﬁts of proximity, but the compactness of activity produces congestion, pollution, and social tension, which can offset those beneﬁts.
Looking at Regional Development
Building integrated neighborhoods: a framework
The “thickness” of country borders is a selfimposed obstacle to development, with isolation increasing the economic distance to markets. Therefore, reduce the border thickness and connect Globally.
But most of the institutions or infrastructure needed to connect a region to the global economy are public goods, requiring collective action to overcome coordination problems and externalities
Three types of policy instruments for regional integration
Reforms needed- legal system for equity investments, property rights, regulation, taxes, ﬁ nance, infrastructure, corruption, and macroeconomic stability
Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, whose international competitiveness is seriously affected by high transport costs, are now exploring corridor approaches that have worked well elsewhere, as in Southeastern Europe
Regional infrastructure - reduce transport costs and connect it to global market.
Electricity, water, telephone lines, and Internet access all raise productivity but are severely inadequate in many developing regions .
Mobility-enhancing regional infrastructure – roads
Trade-enhancing regional infrastructure-
Coordinated incentives involving all the neighborhood’s stakeholders and donors from the leading world markets can promote factor mobility
Coordinated incentives can address market failures and disputes between countries in a
regional association Example- The Central American Common Market, created in 1960 by El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, faced periodic complaints about redistributing beneﬁ ts to Honduras and Nicaragua.
Investments in cross-country infrastructure to connect regional markets.
This is fundamentally different from, the regional development. Corridor Development envisions to create new uban centers with greater density rather than spread the urbanisation. Example – Mumbai, Pune, Nasik . In Corridor Development, Mumbai is getting replicated in Pune and Nasik.
Cross- broder corridor
The Maputo Development Corridor between South Africa and Mozambique was initiated in 1995 to rehabilitate the primary infrastructure network along the corridor (road, rail, port, and border posts), attract investment in the corridor’s catchment area
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) spatial development initiative identiﬁed the Bas-Congo development corridor involving Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Republic of Congo as a region where deep integration would have large beneﬁts
In West and East Africa: The Gulf of Guinea development corridor—linking Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Togo— could integrate West African economies through transport and energy . It could also connect ﬁ ve large coastal cities with a critical mass of economic activities and administrative service provision: Abidjan, Accra, Cotonou, Lagos, and Lomé.
The Mombasa development corridor— linking the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda – To connect major urban centers.
If we look at all these projects, the main aim is to connect the Main cities and link main cities (coastal cities) with interior markets , increase investment though better infrastructure, greater factor mobility with good transportation, create industries in corridor linking them with exports, increase role of Global finances- IFI, MFI so that large increase in international financial will lead to more economic benefits and raise employment opportunities. To promote inter-related infrastructure and large-scale economic sectoral investments. ‘Densification’ of the corridors through the establishment of ancillary and feeder infrastructure to enlarge the corridor’s catchments area and beneficiaries, ‘Deepening’ of resource industries via resource linkages in industrial clusters
Perspectives about the Urban Spatial Structure: From Dichotomy to Continuum
Conventional perspectives about the urban spatial structure tended to represent the urban space in dichotomy with the rural space. They were considered two separate entities, albeit in interaction. The emerging perspective considers the urban spatial structure as a continuum composed of a variety of transitional structures between what can be considered purely rural and urban. The firsts are villages representing basic forms of urbanism in a rural setting. Then, a whole range of urban settlements ranging from towns to large urban agglomerations. The Extended Metropolitan Region (EMR; often labeled a metropolis) is a continuum of urban activities, often interwoven with rural activities, that includes a large urban agglomeration and a network of secondary (satellite) cities, often structured along a corridor.
Case of Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor- DMIC